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December 2016 Texas Medicaid Provider Procedures Manual

Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy Services Handbook : 4 * Therapy Services Overview : 4.3 Speech Therapy : 4.3.1 Types of Communication Disorders

There are three types of communication disorders:
Language Disorders—Impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written and/or other symbol systems. This disorder may involve the following components: forms of language (phonology, morphology, and syntax), content and meaning of language (pragmatics) and/or the perception/processing of language. Language disorders may involve one, all or a combination of the above components.
Speech Production Disorders—Impairment of the articulation of speech sounds, voice and/or fluency. Speech Production Disorders may involve one, all or a combination of these components of the speech production system. An articulation disorder may manifest as an individual sound deficiency, i.e., traditional articulation disorder, incomplete or deviant use of the phonological system, i.e., phonological disorder, or poor coordination of the oral-motor mechanism for purposes of speech production, i.e., verbal and/or apraxia, dysarthria.
Oral Motor/Swallowing/Feeding Disorders—Impairment of the muscles, structures and/or functions of the mouth (physiological or sensory-based) involved with the entire act of deglutition from placement and manipulation of food in the mouth through the oral and pharyngeal phases of the swallow. These disorders may or may not result in deficits to speech production.

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